Suffixes :

A suffix can be one syllable or more and is added to the end of the root word which changes its meaning.

For example…

From the root word busy, the words busier, busily, busiest can be made.

Here are some guidelines for adding suffixes to root words to form new - associated – words.

Words which end with the letter y after a consonant change the y to i before the suffix.

Here are some examples.

Happy, happily, happiest, happiness

Tidy, tidier, tidiest

Fry, fries, fried

The exception is when the suffix is ing. When this is the case, the y does not change to i (because in general English avoids two letters i coming together).

Here are some examples.

Hurry and hurrying

Try and trying

Dry and drying

Fly and flying

Words which end with the letter y after a vowel, keep the y before the suffix.

Here are some examples.

Pay, pays, paying

Say, says, saying, sayings

Play, plays, played, player, players, playing

Buy, buys, buying, buyer, buyers

Grey, greying, greyness

Common exceptions which need to be learned include.

Lay and laid

Pay and paid

Say and said

Day and daily

Words which end with the letter e, drop that e when adding a suffix which begins with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u).

Here are some examples.

Manage, managing

Wave, waving

Achieve, achieving, achievable

Fate, fatal, fatally, fatalist

Debate, debating, debatable

Exceptions are words which keep the final letter e when adding the suffix able such as…

Manage and manageable

Sale and saleable

Rate and rateable

Words which end with the letter e keep that e when adding a suffix which begins with a consonant.

Here are some examples.

Achieve, achievement

Lame, lameness

Blame, blameless

Name, nameless

Same, sameness

Manage, management

There are a few exceptions, such as…

Nine, ninth (but ninety)

True, truly (but truest)

Many words which end with a consonant, double the final consonant when adding a suffix.

Here are some examples.

Final b - sob, sobbing, sobbed; rob, robber, robbing, robbed

Exception : plumb, plumber, plumbing, plumbed

Final d - sad, sadder, saddest (but sadly); glad, gladder, gladdest (but gladly)

Exception : hard, harder, hardest, hardly

Final g - rag, ragged, raggedy; bag, bagged, baggage

Final l - travel, traveller, travelled, travelling; cancel, cancelled, cancelling, cancellation

Exception : vigil, vigilant

Final m - sum, summer, summed; gum, gummed, gummier

Exception : roam, roaming, roamed

Final n - grin, grinning, grinned; plan, planned, planning, planner, planners; man, manned, manner, manners, manning

Exception : turn, turned, turner, turners, turning, turnings

Final p - hop, hopped, hopping, hopper; mop, mopped, mopping

Final r - transfer, transferred, transferring (but note transferable); refer, referred, referring

Exception : differ, different, differed, differing

Final t - cut, cutter, cutting; omit, omitted, omitting

Exception : repeat, repeated, repeating, repeater

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