Chemical Weapons

Chemical Weapons : Chemical Weapons

Chemical Weapons = Biological Weapons - U.S.

The Department of Commerce maintains foreign policy export controls on certain chemical precursors use¬ful in chemical warfare. Through the Australia Group (AG), the United States cooperates with other nations in controlling chemical weapons proliferation. The AG has developed a Core List of nine chemicals considered essen¬tial to the development of chemical weapons. The AG also developed a Warning List which identifies 41 precursors which are useful for chemical weapons development. The AG also provides the forum in which the member coun¬tries share information concerning the activities of non¬member countries where the proliferation of these weapons is of concern, including entities that are seeking chemical precursors and related items.

The United States controls all 50 chemical precursors des¬ignated by the AG as useful in chemical weapons produc¬tion. The nine core list chemicals are controlled worldwide, except to the members of the AG and NATO. The remaining 41 chemicals are controlled to selected countries.

The U.S. also maintains unilateral controls on certain bio¬logical organisms and requires an individual validated li¬cense to all destinations except Canada. U.S. Department of Commerce regulations are designed in the form of a “negative” list. The list identifies those organisms that have been determined to be of no or minimal level of haz¬ard. Any organism that is not included on the list is con¬trolled. The U.S. Department of Commerce requires individual validated licenses for the export of Class 2, 3, and 4 organisms to all destinations except Canada. (The higher the class, the greater the toxicity.) License applica¬tions are referred to the U.S. State Department for review and recommendation. Approval or denial is determined by analysis of the application and intelligence input. - Australia Group


Cost, Insurance, Freight - Incoterms


Cost, Insurance, Freight, Commission and Interest - In¬coterms.

CIM - shipping

An internationally standardized freight docu¬ment issued in rail transport. CIM stands for Convention Internationale concemant le transport des Marchandises par chemin de fer. The agreement has been in force since January 1, 1965, and constitutes the legal basis for the conclusion of freight contracts in international rail goods transport using one freight document.

C = SG

United Nations Convention on Contracts for the Inter¬national Sale of Goods

City Bank - Japan

A major Japanese commercial bank, located in a city, dealing with corporations and major accounts (as compared to a local bank).

City Terminal Service = shipping

A service provided by some airlines to accept shipments at the terminals of their cartage agents or other designated in-town terminals or to deliver shipments to these terminals at lower rates than those charged for the door-to-door pickup and delivery service.

Civil Aeronautics Board = CAB - Historic - U.S.

A U.S. federal agency created by Con¬gress in 1938 to promote the development of the U.S. air transport system, to award air routes, and to regulate pas¬senger fares and cargo rates. Legislation passed by the U.S. Congress in 1978 terminated the CAB, effective Jan¬uary 1, 1985. Many of the CAB functions such as certifi¬cates, air carrier fitness, consumer protection, international rates and services were transferred to the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) - U.S. Department of Trans¬portation

Civil Law - law

A body of law created by statutes and other enact¬ments of legislatures and by rules and regulations adopted to give effect to those statutes and enactments - com¬mon law

Claim - shipping

A demand made upon a transportation line for payment on account of a loss sustained through its negli¬gence.

Claim - insurance

A demand made upon an insurance company for payment on account of an insured loss.

Claim Tracer - shipping

A request for an advice concerning the status of a claim

Class of Merchandise = Kind of Merchandise - customs

A term used in defining the scope of an anti¬dumping investigation. Included in the class or kind of merchandise is merchandise sold in the home market which is such or similar to the petitioned product. Such or similar merchandise is that merchandise which is iden¬tical to or like the petitioned product in physical character¬istics = dumping

Class Rates - shipping

Shipping rates that apply to cargo covered in a single class of goods as defined in a cargo classification table. Cargo classification tables and rates are usually based on criteria such as weight, bulk, value, perishability, hazard/danger and method of packing - class or kind (of merchandise)

Classification - general

The categorization of merchandise.

Classification - shipping

The assignment of a category to a specific cargo for the purpose of applying class rates, together with governing rules and regulations.

Classification - U.S. Customs

The categorization of merchandise ac¬cording to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS or HTSUS). Classification affects the duty status of imported merchandise.

Classification and valuation of imported merchandise must be provided by commercial importers when an entry is filed. In addition, classification under the statistical suf¬fixes of the tariff schedules must also be furnished even though this information is not pertinent to duitable status. Accordingly, classification is initially the responsibility of an importer, customs broker or other person preparing the entry papers. See Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States - valuation

Classification Societies - shipping

Classification societies are organizations that survey and classify ships, both during their construction and operation. They are the principal means by which standards of construction and maintenance are enforced and ship certificates can be issued by Flag States.

In order to be registered a ship must be certified to be of a particular type and size and to be maintained to certain minimum standards. Classification societies are licensed by states (national governments) to undertake this work on their behalf. Most states do not insist that ships be glassed. However, without a class there would be con¬siderable difficulties in operating a ship, as class is gen¬erally a requirement of most insurance companies and shippers using the vessel.

The principal classification societies are :

(1) American Bureau of Shipping (U.S.) (ABS)

(2) Bureau Veritas (France) (BV)

(3) China Classification Society (CCS)

(4) Det Norske Veritas (Norway) (DNV)

(5) Germanischer Lloyd (Germany) (GL)

(6) Hellenic Register of Shipping (Greece) (HRS)

(7) Indian Register of Shipping (India) (IRS)

(8) Korean Register of Shipping (Korea) (KRS)

(9) Lloyd’s Register of Shipping (UK) (LR)

(10) Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (Japan) Class NK

(11) Polski Rejestr Statkow (Poland) (PRS)

(12) Registro Italiano Navale (Italy) (RINA)

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